To improve stewardship of nuclear materials, states should take the following actions:


Strengthen cybersecurity at nuclear facilities, build technical capacity.

Governments should include the cyber threat within the national threat assessment for their nuclear facilities and should put in place a clear set of laws, regulations, standards, and licensing requirements for all nuclear facilities that require protection of digital systems from cyber attack. At the facility level, leadership must prioritize cybersecurity, determine potential consequences, and ensure that digital assets and networks are characterized and secure and that security systems are routinely tested.


Improve measures to protect materials from theft and facilities from sabotage.

States and private industry should protect against theft and sabotage by strengthening physical protection and control and accounting measures. Tests and assessments, a strong security culture, and best practice exchange can also enhance security.


Establish effective nuclear security regimes before building nuclear energy programs.

When planning new nuclear energy programs, states must put the legal and regulatory frameworks in place for proper security. States should turn to the IAEA, the World Institute for Nuclear Security, and other states with established programs for guidance.


Establish independent regulatory agencies, and strengthen existing ones.

Without an independent agency, it is impossible to regulate security and provide oversight and accountability for those with nuclear security responsibilities, and states cannot reassure themselves or others that their nuclear materials are accounted for and safe.


Deliver on nuclear security commitments.

Many commitments made at the 2010, 2012, and 2014 Nuclear Security Summits have not yet been fulfilled, including important pledges related to securing radioactive sources. Governments must first and foremost fulfill those pledges and also share appropriate information to enable accurate tracking in the future.