To develop a comprehensive and effective global nuclear security system for lasting security, states should address critical gaps:


Strengthen and build confidence in the security of military materials.

States with military materials should secure those materials to the same or higher standards as civilian materials, applying standards and best practices that are at least consistent with IAEA nuclear security guidelines. States also should take steps to reassure others that they are securing those materials properly.


Bolster the international legal foundation for nuclear security.

To move closer to a common set of guidelines and best practices, all states must become parties to the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism and the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM) and work to bring the 2005 Amendment to the CPPNM into force. Even before signing or ratifying those conventions, states should voluntarily implement the requirements and should publicize those actions when they do. Finally, states should also implement IAEA nuclear security guidance.


Increase international confidence in the effectiveness of nuclear security, and help build accountability.

Words alone are not enough to give states confidence in one another’s security practices. States must take specific steps to assure others and be held accountable for their actions, such as participating in peer reviews and publishing nuclear security regulations. States should make voluntary commitments, such as contributing to organizations that promote best practices, participating in workshops and training on security, and providing security assistance to other states.


Commit to further decreasing stocks of weapons-usable nuclear materials.

The more material and sites, the greater the exposure to risk of theft, so all states should work to minimize their use of weapons-usable nuclear materials in civilian energy programs, and they should reduce or eliminate stockpiles of those materials where possible.